8. Pegasus Service

8.1. Service Administration

8.1.1. Service Configuration

Create a file called service.py in $HOME/.pegasus OR modify the lib/pegasus/python/Pegasus/service/defaults.py file. The service can be configured using the properties described below.

Pegasus Service Configuration Options


Default Value



SERVER_HOST specifies the hostname/network interface on which the service listens for requests.



SERVER_PORT specifies the port number on which the service listens for requests.



SSL certificate file used to encrypt sessions. If no certificate, key files are provided the service will generate and use self-signed certificates.



SSL key file used to encrypt connections. If no certificate, key files are provided the service will generate and use self-signed certificates.



By default the service uses PAM authentication i.e. When prompted for a username and password users can use the credentials that they use to login to the machine. Users can specify NoAuthentication to disable username/password prompt.



ADMIN_USERS can be used to specify which users have the ability to access other users workflow info. If ADMIN_USERS is None, False, or ‘’ then users can only access their own workflow information. If ADMIN_USERS is ‘*’ then all users are admin users and can access everyones workflow information. If ADMIN_USERS = {‘u1’, .., ‘un’} OR [‘u1’, .., ‘un’] then only users u1, .., un can access other users workflow information.



File created by running Pegasus workflows have permissions as per user configuration. So one user migt not be able to view workflow information of other users. Setting PROCESS_SWITCHING to True makes the service change the process UID to the UID of the user whose information is being requested. pegasus-service must be started as root for PROCESS_SWITCHING to work. PROCESS_SWITCHING can be set to False.



The username which pegasus-em client uses to connect to the pegasus-em server.



The password which pegasus-em client uses to connect to the pegasus-em server.

All clients that connect to the web API will require the USERNAME and PASSWORD settings in the configuration file.

8.1.2. Running the Service

Pegasus Service can be started using the pegasus-service command as follows

$ pegasus-service

By default, the server will start on https://localhost:5000. You can set the host and port in the configuration file OR pass it as a command line switch to pegasus-service as follows.

$ pegasus-service --host <SERVER_HOSTNAME> --port <SERVER_PORT>

8.2. Dashboard

The dashboard is automatically started when pegasus-service command is executed.

8.3. Running Pegasus Service under Apache HTTPD

Prerequisites Apache HTTPD v2.4.x, mod_ssl, and mod_wsgi (for Python 3) to be installed.

To run pegasus-service under Apache HTTPD

  1. Copy file share/pegasus/service/pegasus-service.wsgi to some other directory. We will refer to this directory as <WSGI_FILE_DIR>.

    Configure pegasus service by setting the AUTHENTICATION, PROCESS_SWITCHING, and/or ADMIN_USERS properties in the <WSGI_FILE_DIR>/pegasus-service.wsgi file as desired.

  2. Copy file share/pegasus/service/pegasus-service-httpd.conf to your Apache conf directory.

    1. Replace PEGASUS_PYTHON_EXTERNALS with absolute path to pegasus python externals directory. Execute pegasus-config –python-externals to get this path

    2. Replace HOSTNAME with the hostname on which the server should listen for requests.

    3. Replace DOCUMENT_ROOT with <WSGI_FILE_DIR>

    4. Replace USER_NAME with the username as which the WSGIDaemonProcess should start

    5. Replace GROUP_NAME with the groupname as which the WSGIDaemonProcess should start

    6. Replace PATH_TO_PEGASUS_SERVICE_WSGI_FILE with <WSGI_FILE_DIR>/pegasus-service.wsgi

    7. Replace PATH_TO_SSL_CERT with absolute location of your SSL certificate file

    8. Replace PATH_TO_SSL_KEY with absolute location of your SSL private key file

For additional mod_wsgi configuration refer to https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/ConfigurationDirectives

8.4. Ensemble Manager

The ensemble manager is a service that manages collections of workflows called ensembles. The ensemble manager is useful when you have a set of workflows you need to run over a long period of time. It can throttle the number of concurrent planning and running workflows, and plan and run workflows in priority order. A typical use-case is a user with 100 workflows to run, who needs no more than one to be planned at a time, and needs no more than two to be running concurrently.

The ensemble manager also allows workflows to be submitted and monitored programmatically through its RESTful interface, which makes it an ideal platform for integrating workflows into larger applications such as science gateways and portals.

To start the ensemble manager server, run:

$ pegasus-em server

Once the ensemble manager is running, you can create an ensemble with:

$ pegasus-em create myruns

where “myruns” is the name of the ensemble.

Then you can submit a workflow to the ensemble by running:

$ pegasus-em submit myruns.run1 ./plan.sh run1.dax

Where the name of the ensemble is “myruns”, the name of the workflow is “run1”, and “./plan.sh run1.dax” is the command for planning the workflow from the current working directory. The planning command should either be a direct invocation of pegasus-plan, or a shell script that calls pegasus-plan. If a shell script is used, then it should not redirect the output of pegasus-plan, because the ensemble manager reads the output to determine whether pegasus-plan succeeded and what is the submit directory of the workflow.

To check the status of your ensembles run:

$ pegasus-em ensembles

To check the status of your workflows run:

$ pegasus-em workflows myruns

To check the status of a specific workflow, run:

$ pegasus-em status myruns.run1

To help with debugging, the ensemble manager has an analyze command that emits diagnostic information about a workflow, including the output of pegasus-analyzer, if possible. To analyze a workflow, run:

$ pegasus-em analyze myruns.run1

Ensembles can be paused to prevent workflows from being planned and executed. Workflows in a paused ensemble will continue to run, but no new workflows will be planned or executed. To pause an ensemble, run:

$ pegasus-em pause myruns

Paused ensembles can be reactivated by running:

$ pegasus-em activate myruns

A workflow might fail during planning. In that case, run the analyze command to examine the planner output, make the necessary corrections to the workflow configuration, and replan the workflow by running:

$ pegasus-em replan myruns.run1

A workflow might also fail during execution. In that case, run the analyze command to identify the issue, correct the problem, and rerun the workflow by running:

$ pegasus-em rerun myruns.run1

Workflows in an ensemble can have different priorities. These priorities are used to determine the order in which workflows in the ensemble will be planned and executed. Priorities are specified using the ‘-p’ option of the submit command. They can also be modified after a workflow has been submitted by running:

$ pegasus-em priority myruns.run1 -p 10

where 10 is the desired priority. Higher values have higher priority, the default is 0, and negative values are allowed.

Each ensemble has a pair of throttles that limit the number of workflows that are concurrently planning and executing. These throttles are called max_planning and max_running. Max planning limits the number of workflows in the ensemble that can be planned concurrently. Max running limits the number of workflows in the ensemble that can be running concurrently. These throttles are useful to limit the impact of planning on the memory usage of the submit host, and the load on the submit host and remote site caused by concurrently running workflows. The throttles can be specified with the ‘-R’ and ‘-P’ options of the create command. They can also be updated using the config command:

$ pegasus-em config myruns.run1 -P 1 -R 5

8.4.1. Cron Based Workflow Trigger

If you need submit workflows at given time intervals, the ensemble manager can create a trigger using the pegasus-em cron-trigger command. For example, if you have created an ensemble called myruns and have the workflow script /home/ryan/workflow.py. The following command can be issued to continually submit this workflow to the ensemble manager every hour:

pegasus-em cron-trigger myruns mytrigger 1h /home/ryan/workflow.py -t 1d

This trigger will timeout in 1 day.

8.4.2. File Pattern, Timed Interval, Based Workflow Trigger

File pattern based, cron triggers can also be created to submit workflows to the ensemble manager, along with any new files which match the given file pattern(s) using the pegasus-em file-pattern-trigger command. The trigger created by this command will periodically invoke :

pegasus-em submit <ensemble>.<runXXX> <workflow script> [ADDITIONAL_ARGS] --inputs <file1> <file2> ... <fileN>

where --inputs includes any new file detected matching the given file pattern(s) during the current time interval. If no new files are picked up, no workflow will be submitted to the ensemble manager for the current time interval.

The workflow generation script must have a CLI argument flag --inputs which takes one or more arguments as this is the interface between the ensemble manager trigger and the workflow. The workflow developer is responsible for handling those input file paths appropriately.

The workflow script used with the trigger should be as follows:

import argparse
import sys

 from Pegasus.api import *

 def parse_args(args):
     parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
     parser.add_argument("--inputs", nargs="+")
     # optionally add more arguments if needed

     return parser.parse_args(args)

 args = parse_args(sys.arv[1:])

 wf = Workflow("test")
 # build up workflow using args.inputs

     # do not set submit=True
 except PegasusClientError as e:

Usage of the pegasus-em trigger command is as follows:

pegasus-em trigger ENSEMBLE \
                    TRIGGER \
                    INTERVAL \
                    WORKFLOW_SCRIPT \
                    FILE_PATTERN [FILE_PATTERN ...] \
                    [--timeout TIMEOUT] \
                    [--args ARG1 [ARG2 ...]]
  • ENSEMBLE: the name of the (already created) ensemble to which newly submitted workflows will be added

  • TRIGGER: a name to be associated with this trigger; may be used to shutdown the trigger

  • WORKFLOW_SCRIPT: a workflow generation & planning script as outlined above

  • INTERVAL: the time interval on which the trigger will operate; must be formatted as <int><s|m|h|d> (e.g. 5m)

  • FILE_PATTERN: a file pattern acceptible by glob.glob; note that this pattern must begin with an absolute path (e.g., /inputs/*.csv)

  • TIMEOUT: a timeout for the trigger; must be formatted as <int><s|m|h|d> (e.g. 1h)

  • ARG: any additional arguments to be passed to the WORKFLOW_SCRIPT; these should be quoted when given (passed as a single string).

Example Usage

pegasus-em file-pattern-trigger\
   myruns \
   10s_txt \
   10s \
   /home/ryan/workflow.py \
   /home/ryan/input/*.txt \
   --timeout 40s

This means that a trigger called 10s_txt will be created for the ensemble myruns. Every 10 seconds, this trigger will look for new *.txt files in the /home/ryan/input directory. Say that on the current interval the files /home/ryan/input/f1.txt and /home/ryan/input/f2.txt are found. The trigger will internally call:

pegasus-em submit \
    myruns.10s_txt_<time now as UNIX TS> \
    workflow.py --inputs /home/ryan/input/f1.txt /home/ryan/input.f2.txt

40 seconds after the trigger has started, it will shutdown.